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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in a middle-class family in Porbandar district of the present Gujarat state. His father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi and his mother’s name was Putli Bai. He was the youngest among his three brothers. His mother Putlibai was of very gentle and religious nature which had a deep influence on Gandhiji’s personality.
- 1 Mahatma Gandhi Story
- 1.1 Mahatma Gandhi’s early life
- 1.2 Education and Advocacy of Mahatma Gandhi abroad
- 1.3 Gandhiji’s marital life
- 1.4 Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to South Africa
- 1.5 Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi
- 1.6 Champaran Satyagraha
- 1.7 Ahmedabad mill-labor movement
- 1.8 Kheda Satyagraha
- 1.9 Opposition to Rowllet Act
- 1.10 Khilafat movement 1919
- 1.11 Major National Movements Led by Mahatma Gandhi
- 1.12 Non-cooperation Movement
- 1.13 Quit India Movement
- 1.14 Quit India Movement Description in Detail
- 1.15 Mahatma Gandhi’s life philosophy
- 1.16 Newspaper run by Gandhiji
- 1.17 Mahatma Gandhi’s death
- 1.18 Mahatma Gandhi Story with Pictures
Mahatma Gandhi Story
Mahatma Gandhi’s full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born on 2 October 1869 in a place named Porbandar, a city in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi’s father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi and his mother’s name was Putlibai.
Mahatma Gandhi was the son of Putlibai, the fourth wife of Karamchand Gandhi. Before this, all three of his wives had died during childbirth. Mahatma Gandhi’s father was the Diwan of a small princely state (Porbandar) of Kathiawad at that time and his mother was a woman with religious views. Gandhiji’s mother had a great influence on him, hence Gandhiji always adopted a vegetarian life as per the promise given to his mother.
Gandhi means grocer in Gujarati language and Bapu means father in Gujarati language. Gandhi was first addressed by Mahatma Gandhi Rajvaidya Jivaram Kalidas and then he started being called as Mahatma Gandhi. When Subhash Chandra Bose called him the Father of the Nation through Rangoon Radio for his blessings and good wishes for the soldiers of Azad Hind Fauj, Mahatma Gandhi was given many names by different people.
Mahatma Gandhi’s early life
Mahatma Gandhi received his middle school education from Porbandar and in 1876, his family moved to Rajkot from where he passed his high school examination in 1881. Mahatma Gandhi was an average student at that time.
When Mahatma Gandhi turned 13 years old in 1883, he was married to Kasturba Makhanji who was 14 years old. There were customs of child marriage at that time so it was a child marriage. Kasturba Makhanji’s long name was shortened to Kasturba which people used to call Baa.
In 1885, Mahatma Gandhi’s first child was born, but after living for some time, he died and in the same year, when Gandhiji was 16 years old, the health of his father, who was 63 years old, started deteriorating. At that time Gandhiji always stayed with him.
But one day, to give relief to his body for some time, he went to his bedroom where his physical desires were awakened and he had a love affair with his wife Kasturba, after which after some time he came to know that his father had died, which Gandhiji was shocked to know. Due to this incident which felt like a crime, Mahatma Gandhi started turning towards celibacy. In the year 1885, Gandhiji had to face two great sorrows, one was the death of his first child and the other was the death of his father.
By 1887, Mahatma Gandhi completed his matriculation and after that he took admission in Shamaldas College, Bhavnagar and due to some difficulties, he left it after one session. The reason for his problem was that his family wanted him to become a barrister because he was the only highly educated person in his family. Who could have become a Diwan like his father and uncle
Therefore, his family friend suggested that if Mahatma Gandhi became a barrister from London, he could easily become Diwan. Therefore, in 1888, Mahatma Gandhi went to University College, London to study law, thus Gandhiji went to London i.e. England to become a barrister.
Education and Advocacy of Mahatma Gandhi abroad
In that year 1888, just 30 days before his birthday, Mahatma Gandhi went to England to study law at University College London. Before leaving India, he promised his mother that he would always follow a vegetarian diet and would give up meat, alcohol and narrow-minded ideology.
While living in London, he experienced many types of English customs and also followed the promise of his mother. For some time, he faced problems due to non-availability of vegetarian food but later he came to know about the places providing vegetarian food and then he took membership of the Vegetarian Society there.
It was the people of the vegetarian community who inspired him to read Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta. When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from England in 1891, his mother had died. After this, he practiced law in Bombay but did not achieve any success here.
Then Mahatma Gandhi came to Rajkot and started writing case petitions for the needy there, but after some time, due to various reasons, he had to leave this work, which he has mentioned in his autobiography. Thus in 1893, under an agreement, he went to Natal (South Africa) for one year to fight a case for an Indian firm.
Gandhiji’s marital life
Gandhiji was married to Kasturbaji in 1883 when he was only 13 years old. People used to affectionately call him ‘Baa’. Kasturba Gandhi’s father was a rich businessman. Kasturba did not know how to read and write before marriage. Gandhiji taught him to read and write. Like an ideal wife, Ba supported Gandhiji in all his work. Gandhiji’s first child was born in the year 1885, but he died shortly thereafter.
Mahatma Gandhi’s visit to South Africa
After completing his barrister degree from England, Gandhiji came to Rajkot and started practicing law. Meanwhile, on the invitation of Indian businessman Seth Abdullah in South Africa, he went to South Africa to fight his case.
There he had to go to Pretoria by train from Durban, for which he took a first class train ticket. In those days, in Africa, black and Asian people were not allowed to sit in the first class compartment, so the British ticket checker pushed Gandhiji out at Pietermaritzburg station.
This incident shook Gandhiji from within and he took up the responsibility of raising voice against this racism. Many historians consider this incident an important step in Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s journey to becoming Mahatma Gandhi. After this, he founded the Natal Congress in 1894 to raise his voice against racism in Africa.
Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival in India and contribution to the freedom struggle
After fighting against apartheid in South Africa, Gandhiji returned home on 9 January 1915 and started contributing to the country’s independence. Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas is celebrated on 9 January to commemorate Gandhiji’s return from his visit to Africa.
Gandhiji considered Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political guru, on whose advice he traveled to India for a year and understood the country. Three main nationwide movements were launched by Gandhiji in India’s freedom struggle, which are as follows:-
- Non-Cooperation Movement- In 1920
- Civil Disobedience Movement- in 1930
- Quit India Movement- in 1942
Through these movements, Gandhiji worked to bind the people of the entire country in the thread of unity so that the country moved towards independence and as a result the country got freedom from foreign rule.
Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi
Many major movements were carried out by Mahatma Gandhi in the country which received full support from the people of the country. There were 3 main movements at the national level by Gandhiji and many other movements were also supported. The description of major movements by Gandhiji is as follows.
Gandhiji’s first experiment of Satyagraha after returning home was done in Champaran, Bihar. On the request of a farmer named Rajkumar Shukla, Gandhiji came to see the condition of the indigo farmers of North India. The farmers were being forced by the British to cultivate indigo and the income the farmers got in return was also less. The British had to change their policy as a result of Gandhiji’s Satyagraha.
Ahmedabad mill-labor movement
After Champaran, Gandhiji agitated in support of cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad. There was a dispute regarding salary between the workers and factory owners in the cotton mill in Ahmedabad, after which through the mediation of Gandhiji, it was possible to reach an agreement between the two parties on mutual issues.
In the year 1918, due to famine in Kheda district of Gujarat, the crops of the farmers failed, on which the farmers appealed to the British government to waive the rent, but the British government ignored the demand of the farmers and said that they would pay the full rent. On this, farmers were supported by Gandhiji, after which the British gave tax concessions to the farmers.
Opposition to Rowllet Act
On 8 March 1919, the Rowlatt Act was passed by the British Government to curb the activities of Indian nationalists. According to this law, the British government could arrest any citizen without any crime on the basis of mere suspicion. In protest against this, Gandhiji had called for a nationwide strike. Opposition to this Act resulted in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Khilafat movement 1919
The Khilafat movement started by Muslims in protest against the removal of the Caliph of Turkey was linked to the freedom movement by Gandhiji, after which people of all communities across the country enthusiastically participated in the freedom struggle of the country.
Major National Movements Led by Mahatma Gandhi
Various movements were led by Gandhiji during his lifetime. However, among these movements, the names of 3 major movements organized by Gandhiji figure prominently, which are as follows – Non-cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement.
These three movements organized by Gandhiji were national level movements which had a wide impact on the whole of India. In these three movements, the people of the country enthusiastically supported Gandhiji. The details of these movements are as follows.
This was the first major nationwide movement against the British by Gandhiji through which Gandhiji united the entire country. The British government led by General Dyer opened fire on the unarmed crowd that was holding a meeting against the Rowlatt Act, as a result of which thousands of innocent people lost their lives. The non-cooperation movement was started by Gandhiji against this atrocities of the British.
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Non Co-operation Movement Description in Detail
The non-cooperation movement was started by Gandhiji in September 1920 and this movement lasted till 11 February 1922. The reason behind starting this movement was Gandhiji’s non-cooperation with the British in every field.
Gandhiji knew that the British rule in our country was running only through the cooperation of Indians. If Indians stop cooperating with the British, then the British will not be able to rule our country for long, therefore Gandhiji appealed to the people of the country to non-cooperate with the British in every field.
On Gandhiji’s appeal, people gave full support to the movement. As a result, thousands of people left their government jobs, lawyers left their advocacy, students left schools and colleges, laborers left factories and countrymen left the use of foreign goods.
As a result, the British rule in the country began to crumble but at its peak this movement was withdrawn by Gandhiji after the Chaura-Chauri incident.
Civil Disobedience Movement/Dandi March/Salt Satyagrah Movement
In the year 1930, the second nationwide movement was started by Gandhiji which was named Civil Disobedience Movement. The objective of this movement was to show complete disobedience and disregard for the laws made by the British government against the public interest.
As a result of this movement, Dandi March was organized by Gandhiji, after which Gandhiji made salt in defiance of the British salt law.
Civil Disobedience Movement Description in Detail
In 1930, the British imposed a ban on making salt by Indians, after which the production of salt, an important part of the common man’s daily diet, was banned. As a result of this, Gandhiji started the Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad on 12 March 1930, which lasted for a total of 24 days. 78 Satyagrahis were also with Gandhiji in this journey.
After a period of 24 days, this journey reached the banks of Dandi from where Gandhiji broke the British salt law by making salt. Along with this, the Civil Disobedience Movement also started under which Gandhiji made people break the laws made by the British against the interest of the people. Citizens of the entire country supported Gandhiji in this movement, due to which this movement was successful in its objective.
Quit India Movement
Quit India Movement was started by Gandhiji in the year 1942 to attack the roots of the British government. During this movement, the freedom struggle in the country was at its peak and it was during this movement that the slogan of do or die was given by Gandhiji. In this movement, people were encouraged by Gandhiji to make full efforts to achieve independence.
Quit India Movement Description in Detail
By the year 1942, the British had understood that now the British rule in the country was a guest for a limited number of days. During this period, due to the Second World War, the British sought help from the Indians, but the independence movement in the country was at its peak. Gandhiji’s call to the people of the country for independence encouraged them to make the final push in the freedom struggle, but due to lack of proper coordination, the movement failed to achieve its desired goals.
Mahatma Gandhi’s life philosophy
Mahatma Gandhi considered truth and non-violence as the strongest weapons to achieve any goal. Gandhiji believed that not only should the objective be sacred, but the means to achieve the objective should also be sacred.
Western thinkers like Leo Tolstoy and Henry David Thoreau had a deep influence on Gandhiji’s life, from whom Gandhiji accepted the principle of non-violence. Character was built by Gandhiji on the basis of these life principles:-
- Truth – Gandhiji considered truth to be the biggest objective of life and Gandhiji’s entire philosophy of life rests on this. On the basis of this statement, real victory can be achieved only through truth, he had also named his biography ‘My experiments with truth’.
- Non-Violence- Gandhiji considered non-violence as the main weapon to achieve any objective. We can prominently see the use of the principle of nonviolence in Gandhiji’s movements. Gandhiji believed that for non-violence it is necessary to be internally strong.
- Simplicity- Gandhiji had a strong belief in simplicity. Gandhiji believed that unless we adopt simplicity in our lives, the gap between the rich and the poor in the society cannot be bridged. To follow simplicity, Gandhiji used the same Khadi dhoti throughout his life.
- Trust – Gandhiji considered trust to be the main element to maintain unity among people of different religions. Gandhiji believed that to maintain communal harmony among people of different religions, it is necessary that people should accept the essential elements of each other’s religions and promote mutual understanding.
- Celibacy- Gandhiji always preached celibacy to his countrymen for spiritual purification.
Newspaper run by Gandhiji
Various newspapers were run by Gandhiji to make the public aware about the freedom movements in the country, through which we get a glimpse of Gandhiji’s thoughts and his struggle for the country. Following are the major newspapers started by Gandhiji.
- Indian Opinion – The first newspaper started by Gandhiji in South Africa, through which Gandhiji raised his voice against racism.
- Navjivan patra- Newspaper started by Gandhiji in Hindi and Gujarati.
- Young India- a weekly magazine published in English by Gandhiji.
- Harijan- Newspaper run by Gandhiji for the upliftment of Dalit class in the society.
Apart from newspapers, many books have also been written by Gandhiji, among which Gram Swaraj, Satyagraha in South Africa, Hind Swaraj and India of my dreams are noteworthy. Apart from this, Gandhiji has written his autobiography named My Experiments with Truth.
Mahatma Gandhi’s death
On January 30, 1948, at 5:17 pm, Nathuram Godse and his aide Gopaldas shot Gandhiji dead at Birla House. Gandhiji was shot three times, at the last moment the words ‘Hey Ram’ came out of his mouth. After his death, his mausoleum was built at Rajghat in New Delhi.
Mahatma Gandhi Story with Pictures
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